Scoliosis is a condition where the spine deviates from its normal alignment and leads to abnormal curvature of the spine. This can occur during a person’s adolescence or childhood (idiopathic scoliosis) or develop as an adult (degenerative scoliosis). The majority of cases, particularly those occurring in adolescents, tend to have a genetic basis. However, certain neuromuscular disorders, such as muscular dystrophy, can cause scoliosis. If abnormal degeneration of the disc or spinal joints occurs, scoliosis can develop later in life. Correcting scoliosis usually involves placing multiple screws or hooks along the length of the curved spine to decrease the curvature. Bone grafts or bone graft substitutes may be added to fuse the vertebrae in the straighter, less curved spine configuration. Surgery is indicated when patients have severe pain or if the curvature is progressively getting worse.